Paul Klee, Carpet, 1927, Hans-Willem Snoeck, Brooklyn, New York, Photo © Edward Watkins.
Book cover of Ernst Fuhrmann: Tlinkit und Haida, Folkwang Verlag GmbH, Hagen 1922.
Raoul D’Harcourt: Textiles of Ancient Peru and their Techniques, University of Washington Press, Seattle 1962.
Arthur Baessler collection, Shirt, Tiahuanaco (=Tiwanaku), 0–700 (?), Peru
© Ethnologisches Museum der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, photo: Claudia Obrocki.
Anni Alber, Black–White–Gray, 1927, © The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019.
Josef Albers, Loggia Wall at RIT, 1967
The Josef and Anni Albers Foundation, © The Josef and Anni Albers Foundatio / VG Bild-Kunst, Bonn 2019.
Rose Slivka, "New Tapestry", in: Craft Horizons, March/April 1963
Lena Bergner, Draft of a hand loom, ca. 1936–39, Bauhaus Dessau Foundation
© American Craft Council / Heirs to Lena Bergner.
Eduard Gaffron Collection, Khipu, Inca 1450–1550, Huacho, Peru
© Photo: Ethnologisches Museum der Staatlichen Museen zu Berlin – Preußischer Kulturbesitz, photo: Claudia Obrocki.
Anne Wilson, "Net Fence" detail, 1975, Cotton and jute cord, raffia, bamboo supports, 96 x 45 x 20 inches overall.
Courtesy of the artist.
Lenore Tawney, Mask, ca. 1967, Linen, pre-Columbian beads, shell, horsehair
Photos: George Erml; Courtesy: Lenore G. Tawney Foundation.
Marguerite Wildenhain, Double Face pot, 1960–70, Luther College, Decorah, photo: Grant Watson, © Luther College.
Kader Attia, Signs of Reappropriation as Repair, 2017, Single projection of 80 slides, Courtesy of the artist.
from: Maghreb Art Magazine, No. 3, 1965, © Mohamed Melehi.
Poster exhibition of Farid Belkahia, Mohamed Chabâa, Mohamed Melehi, Théâtre National
Mohamed V, design: Mohamed Melehi, 1965, Toni Maraini Collection, © Mohamed Melehi.
Painted ceiling of Mohamed Melehi, Hotel Les Roses du Dades, Kelaa M'Gouna, 1968–69
Architects: cabinet Faraoui et de Mazières, archives: Faraoui et de Mazières.
Door from the Musée Tiskiwin, Collection of Bert Flint, photo: Maud Houssais.
Departing from Paul Klee’s drawing Teppich (Carpet) from 1927 the exhibition chapter Learning From addresses the study and appropriation of cultural production from outside the modernist mainstream, principally from non-Western sources, but also European folk traditions, the work of outsider artists, and children. Engagement with premodern artifacts and practices was a constant feature of the work of teachers and students at the Bauhaus and continued to inform their approach after the school’s closure in 1933.
In the United States in the middle of the twentieth century, the exploration of local craft practices and pre-Columbian cultures in North, Central, and South America helped to develop the formal language of abstraction as well as new procedures in weaving and the fiber arts based on precolonial forms and techniques. In questioning the division between the high and low arts, the Bauhaus had contested the classicism of the European art academies. However, the study of non-Western art and cultural practice, often used to deconstruct this binary, failed to take into account the colonial, sometimes violent and illegitimate appropriation of cultural goods, as well as the social, economic, and political disruption which European colonialism had left in its wake in North and South America, Africa, and Asia.
The incorporation of popular, indigenous, and Afro Brazilian cultures into the lexicon of Brazilian modernism, while acting as a counter-model to European modernism and the Bauhaus, occurred simultaneously with the continued impact of colonial violence on the indigenous population. In post-revolutionary Mexico and postcolonial Morocco, the program of translating precolonial cultural production into the language of modernity acquired a socio-political dimension as the recourse to local art practices, by the Taller de Gráfica Popular (TGP, workshop for popular graphics) in Mexico and the École des Beaux Arts in Casablanca demonstrate.
Learning From shows how Bauhaus modernism was indebted to transcultural encounters, and reveals the synthesis of premodern and modern art as cultural appropriation, as well as in the context of decolonization and cultural self-determination.
from: Shuttle-Craft Bulletin, March 1941.
from: Black Mountain College Bulletin, No. 5, 1938.
Publié dans: Maghreb Art, 1966.
Courtesy of Mohammed Melehi and Toni Maraini.
Publié dans: Integral, No. 12–13, 1978.
Courtesy of Toni Maraini.
Publié dans: Souffles, No. 7–8, 1967.
Courtesy of Abdellatif Laâbi.
from: Black Mountain College Bulletin, Vol. 6, No. 4, May 1948. Reproduced with permission of North Carolina Department of Natural and Cultural Resources.
Oral history interview, 2004 February 3 and March 11.
from: Denise Y. Arnold & Elvira Espejo: The Andean Science of Weaving, Thames & Hudson Ltd. London 2015, pp. 18–44.