Marcel Breuer, Collage ein bauhaus-film. fünf jahre lang, 1926
in: bauhaus. zeitschrift für gestaltung, Nr. 1, 1926
Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin, © Thomas Breuer.
MP Ranjan, Bamboo Cube, no date, NID, FID storage + KMC Prototype.
Unknown Photographer, Photo of a Chinese woman
with tubular steel chair, ca. 1930s–40s
China Design Museum of CAA, Hangzhou.
Schweizer Staedtebauer bei den Sowjets, magazine cover
Hannes Meyer Estate, gta Archiv / eth Zürich.
Construyamos escuelas, 1947, magazine cover
Hannes Meyer Estate, Archiv der Moderne, Weimar.
Miguel Lawner, Esquema de relaciones – esquema de circulación,
student exercise by Miguel Lawner for a class of Tibor Weiner at the University of Chile, 1946
© Miguel Lawner Archive.
Shanghai urban planning and design institute, The Explanatory Drawing
of "urban plan" made by Shanghai Urban Planning Commission Secretariat,
1940s, Private collection, © unknown.
Konrad Püschel, Site plan of Hamhung, 1956
© Stiftung Bauhaus Dessau.
University of Ife in Ile-Ife, Nigeria by architects Arieh Sharon and Eldar Sharon
© Yael Aloni Collection.
Lotte Stam-Beese, Studies for the region Rotterdam-Capelle aan den Ijssel, no date.
© Het Nieuwe Instituut StaB t79–1.
The starting point of the chapter Moving Away is Marcel Breuer’s collage ein bauhaus-film. fünf jahre lang (a bauhaus film: five years long), published in the first issue of the magazine bauhaus in 1926. Breuer’s “filmstrip” presents the development of his chair design from handcrafted object, to industrial prototype, towards a future in which the designed object becomes obsolete. The growing influence of the National Socialist Party in Germany in the 1930s led to numerous Bauhaus teachers and students emigrating. Moving Away examines how Bauhaus debates on design evolved during the first half of the twentieth century through this diaspora, and subsequently how they changed in relation to different societal conditions and geographies.
Dismissed from his post in 1930 by right-wing political forces in Dessau due to his solidarity with the communist student union, the second Bauhaus director Hannes Meyer applied to the Soviet embassy for a transfer to Moscow; in 1931 seven of his former students followed him, many of whom would fall victim to Stalin’s “War Communism.” The opportunity to realize avant-garde cities on a previously unimagined scale in this newly industrializing state soon came into conflict with the official doctrine of socialist realism. Geopolitical storms, generated by Hitler, Stalin, and Mussolini’s seizure of power, also became evident at the fourth meeting of the Congrès Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM) in 1933, where Walter Gropius, Le Corbusier, and others led discussions on international urbanism.
In the United States, where Gropius immigrated in 1937, the Bauhaus would stand for freedom and democracy. Gropius taught international students at Harvard, including the Chinese architects Henry Huang and Ieoh Ming Pei, and through these contacts, began to question modernism’s universal principles. Confronted through a collaboration with I. M. Pei with ideas about Asian landscape architecture that he initially rejected, Gropius came to understand how Asian spatial concepts and vernacular traditions could greatly improve modernist architecture.
The end of European colonial rule, the Cold War and the emergence of newly independent states exerted an international influence on design policy including campus architecture. This is apparent in the university building in Ile-Ife, which the Israeli Bauhaus graduate and architect Arieh Sharon designed on behalf of Nigeria’s first post-independence national government between the early 1960s and 1980s. Today, the Obafemi Awolowo University still functions in its original form as a learning environment.
Based on interactions with teachers from the Hochschule für Gestaltung (HfG, School of Design), Ulm, the ideas of the Bauhaus can be traced to the curriculum of India’s National Institute of Design (NID), founded in 1961 as part of the Indian government’s strategy to improve the nation’s standard of living. At NID, the intention was for industrial design to act as a development tool and catalyst for economic growth to serve the needs of a non-affluent, mostly rural population, with designers also utilizing the technical knowledge accumulated by the subcontinent over millennia.
With case studies in the Soviet Union, India, China, Taiwan, North Korea, and Nigeria, through archival and film research and commissioned artworks, Moving Away explores how the Bauhaus evolved through entanglement with social, cultural, and political exigencies.
Three articles from: New Culture, Nigeria:
1. „Creativity and Self-Reliance“, in: New Culture, Vol. 1, No. 1, Nov. 1978, pp. 7–11.
2. „The Aesthetics of African Art and Culture: The African Concept of Beauty : The Concept of Ugliness“, in: New Culture, Vol. 1, No. 7, June 1979, pp. 4–6.
3. „Planning and Design of the Environment: The Failure of Government-Sponsored Projects“, in: New Culture, Vol. 1, No. 10, Sep. 1979, pp. 35–37.
From: Shanay Jhaveri (ed.): Western Artists and India: Creative Inspirations in Art and Design, The Shoestring Publisher, 2013.
Courtesy Shanay Jhaveri and The Shoestring Publisher.
from: GHI Bulletin Supplement 2.
In: R E D Sonderheft „bauhaus“, Nr. 5/1930.
from: S. Balaram: Thinking Design, National Institute of Design (NID), 1998.
from: International Journal of Architectural Research, Archnet-IJAR, Vol. 10, No. 3, November 2016, © Archnet-IJAR, International Journal of Architectural Research.
Preparation and Failure (1928–1933)
Courtesy Thomas Flierl.
In: bauhaus. zeitschrift für gestaltung, No. 2, 1931.
"The Development of the Bauhaus Weaving Workshop", translation of an excerpted version.
from: Architektúra & Urbanizmus, Vol. LI, No. 1–2, 2017, p. 94–105.
from: Haus der Kulturen der Welt: Wohnungsfrage. Hannes Meyer Co-op Interieur, Spector Books, Leipzig 2015, p. 1–5.
from: Haus der Kulturen der Welt: Wohnungsfrage. Hannes Meyer Co-op Interieur, Spector Books, Leipzig 2015, p. 27–32.
in: Wissenschaftliche Zeitschrift der Hochschule für Architektur und Bauwesen Weimar, 32. Jg., 1986, Reihe: A, No. 4.