After the Ball

Hannes Meyer Presenting the Bauhaus in Moscow

Unknown photographer, Exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s Directorship, 1928–1930
at Moscow State Museum of Modern Western Art (GMNZI), 1931, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne.

Hannes Meyer arrived in the USSR just a couple of months after being dismissed from his position as Bauhaus director in October 1930. These months were filled with attempts by Meyer and his supporters to protest this decision through all possible means: media campaigns, open letters, student demonstration and court trials. After arriving in Moscow, Meyer not only continued to work with his Dessau associates, whose visit he immediately began arranging, but also carried on the fight against his unfair dismissal.

The Dessau scandal with its political undertones was reported in Pravda,1 the main mass party newspaper of the USSR. The arrival of this famous architect who had so recently fallen prey to politically motivated persecution, provoked a certain degree of excitement. At the beginning of November, Meyer and his former student Béla Scheffler, leader of the Bauhaus communist cell, gave several talks at the Higher Institute for Architecture and Building (VASI: successor of the VKhUTEMAS/Vkhutein2), attended by thousands of curious listeners. These gatherings were accompanied by a small pop-up exhibition, das zerstörte Bauhaus, which probably lasted around a week. Existing photographic documentation show that the exhibition included textile samples, images of the Trade Union school, as well as pictures used by Meyer in the brochure “Junge Menschen kommt ans Bauhaus” (1929), a programmatic text advertising the Meyer Bauhaus.3 The exhibition also included a watercolor and a photograph by Fritz Kuhr, while an Alexander Schawinski poster for the Gas und Wasser exhibition (1929) was chosen to illustrate the interconnection of kunst, wirklichkeit and leben under the slogan, “von pol zu pol geht alle bauhaus-arbeit!”4. This statement was typical of the holistic project informing the Meyer Bauhaus, which sought to embrace all aspects of modern life in its teaching without regard to the prevailing disciplinary boundaries existing at the time between the arts and science. In retrospect, this exhibition appears to be a nostalgic homage to the intense creative period that had ended so abruptly.

Unknown photographer, Audience listening to Hannes Meyer's lecture at WASI, 1930, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne.

As he already started doing in Germany, Meyer enlisted new Soviet supporters—along with their ideas and methods—into his struggle for the lost paradise.5 At one meeting he gathered ex-VKhUTEMAS students, now dispersed at institutes for textile, architecture, wood design, etc., and members of the competing AKhRR and October art groups, both popular among the youth. A resolution was published in the magazine Art into Masses, edited by the AKhRR:

“the destruction of the Bauhaus is an action of the white terror, that the fascistic capitalist Germany applies more and more often against the growing revolutionary movement of the working class, against (the) revolutionary intelligentsia that rises to fight against fascism and socio-fascism along with the working class. (…) The destruction of the Bauhaus, then, will only strengthen the struggle for ideas and methods that had been pushed forward by the Bauhaus under the leadership of Hannes Meyer.”6

There was a certain contradiction between such radical statements and the reality of the Meyer Bauhaus, which the exhibition demonstrated on a small scale. The reality of Meyer’s Bauhaus included Wassily Kandinsky’s classes as one “pole” of its program, but the “Red Bauhaus” fiercely rejected its bourgeois nature. The same VASI gathering also resolved to demand the Tretyakov Gallery remove paintings by the “white emigrant” Kandinsky, because he had assisted in the plot of the “socio-fascists.”7 In this contradiction lies a key motivation in organizing a Bauhaus exhibition that would fit Meyer’s agenda more precisely.

This idea of the exhibition was supported (or perhaps even suggested) by the by the VOKS, the All-Union Society for Cultural Relations with Foreign Countries. Established in 1925, this quasi-public organization was in fact a cultural diplomacy agency whose purpose was to control contacts between Soviet organizations and citizens with the outside world in order to cultivate a positive image of the USSR abroad.8 One of the VOKS’s duties was to welcome renowned visitors, and Hannes Meyer’s arrival in the fall of 1930 was thus the occasion for an official reception.9 It must be through Meyer’s prior communication with the VOKS that the decision was taken to demonstrate the ideologically “proper” Bauhaus with an exhibition at the Moscow State Museum of Modern Western Art (GMNZI). This museum habitually held exhibitions dedicated to foreign USSR sympathizers—organized through VOKS—such as Rabindranath Tagore (1930) and artists of the John Reed Club (1931). They were shown next to the museum’s permanent display of paintings by French impressionists, post-impressionists and cubists from the nationalized collections of Sergei Schchukin and Ivan Morozov.10

As the GMNZI’s records show, the exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s directorship, 1928–1930 was by February 1931 already ready to receive the Moscow public.11 That indicates it was prepared by Hannes Meyer alone, or perhaps with the assistance of Béla Scheffler, who possessed more political experience. One thing is certain: no other Bauhäusler was yet around to influence its conception.

As Meyer declared in his introduction to the catalogue12: “The actual exhibition illustrates the third period of the Bauhaus movement, when an attempt was undertaken to turn this institute into the “Red Bauhaus”—the Marxist architectural school.”13 Further, he claimed he had tried “to introduce sociological methods rather than artistic (ones),”14 and that “this change was achieved with a group of students close to the KPD (Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands) in spite of the secret opposition of professors and art historians.”15

Unknown photographer, Bauhaus pop-up exhibition The destroyed Bauhaus at WASI, Moscow 1930, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne. 

Meyer had to select works that would support these ambitious statements. The organization of the one-room display can be reconstructed with the help of photographs documenting three out of the exhibition’s four walls, the accompanying catalogue16 and a list of prior exhibits composed by GMNZI employees.17 My overview repeats some observations made by the architect Philipp Tolziner, whose thorough research undertaken in the 1970s remains unpublished.18

As the photographs show, the name of the exhibition was written in Russian over the entrance door—as Tolziner argues, by Meyer himself.19 In lieu of a curator’s introduction, a catalogue hung by a cord in the entryway. The exhibits themselves were mounted on fifty plywood panels, marked with the inscription “Bauhaus” and a catalogue number. These panels were hung in one or two rows. To the right of the door were placed six panels supporting photographic documentation of pieces made in the workshop for interior design, together with schemes for their assembly, and a second row of six panels containing numerous examples of graphic design commissioned by the KPD or other leftist political organizations with Bauhaus student membership (Max Gebhard, Albert Menzel and others). To the left of this hung four panels with newspaper articles about Hannes Meyer’s dismissal (Roter Student, AIZ (Arbeiter-Illustrierte-Zeitung), Pravda, etc.), Kostufra20 leaflets on the same subject and a selection from the RED magazine’s special edition on the Bauhaus, illustrated with documentation of Meyer’s Arbeiterbank project, works of the departments of Innenausbau, and examples from the Bauhaus weaving workshop and photography workshop. Two propaganda posters designed for the KPD and IAH21 by Bauhaus students Max Gebhard and Albert Mentzel hung above this grouping.

The photos of the Trade Union school in Bernau occupied a long wall opposite the entrance with 17 panels and an extra seven framed photographs hanging below it. On the wall to the right of the entrance hung nine or more panels showing documentation of student architectural projects, including the communal house by Philipp Tolziner and Tibor Weiner, a “school in Louny” by Antonin Urban and gallery-houses in Dessau-Törten. Examples of the Baulehre (Lothar Lang, Sonnendiagramm; Heinz Knaub, Der Garten; and others) apparently were placed on standing mounts below these panels. High above this group were placed two remarkable posters—presumably designed by Erich Borhert, who had lived in Moscow since his graduation from the Bauhaus—one with a red flag and the inscription “Bauhaus” and another illustrated with a hammer and sickle and the text “Long Live Soviet Germany” written in Russian.

Unknown photographer, Bauhaus pop-up exhibition The destroyed Bauhaus at WASI, 1930, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne.

Another wall with a window contained panels of “amateur photographs,” showing life at the Bauhaus. It is hard to distinguish what they depict exactly, but likely among them was a portrait of Meyer’s architecture student and lover Lotte Beese (sogar die lotte hängt dort unter den fotos an der wand (even Lotte hangs there under the photos on the wall)22), as well as photographs by Lony Neumann.23

At the center of the gallery stood a glass vitrine containing examples from the Bauhaus weaving workshop—20 out 37 by Lena Bergner, a Bauhaus graduate who also emigrated to Russia, probably taking these pieces with her. Two sample-albums with Bauhaus wallpaper and a catalogue were placed on a small table beside it, with chairs provided for visitors to sit in while looking through them.

To sum up: Hannes Meyer did his best in his choice of exhibits to illustrate the key words of his introduction, in which he described the Bauhaus as a Marxist architectural school that succeeded in actual production (wallpapers, textile). The Bauhaus’s wholist ambitions with its different “poles” (the vorkurs, theater, commercial advertising and painting) included in the Bauhaus Wanderschau of 1929–30, or in the Moscow show das zerstörte Bauhaus, were completely absent.

Hannes Meyer, Cover of the exhibition catalogue Bauhaus Dessau. Period of Hannes Meyer’s Directorship, 1928–1930, Moscow 1931, Bauhaus-Universiät Weimar, Archiv der Moderne.

Philipp Tolziner, who carefully traced the origins and authorship of each work in the Bauhaus Dessau show in his 1970s research, concluded that none of the communist prints occupying a significant place in the exhibition’s schema were official Bauhaus productions. The “real” Bauhaus products, in fact, were few. Tolziner’s tone approaches irritation when writing about his and Tibor Weiner’s design, Wohnen im Sozialismus, enlarged photocopies of which were placed on the Baulehre wall:

“We worked on this project not only in isolation from the official institute, but in contrast to its management, which took the view, as we were convinced and also realized, that there was no room for party-political activity at the Bauhaus. ... Therefore, we consider the use of the ‘communal dwelling house’ project to illustrate the political direction of an official “unified” Bauhaus led by its management to be contradictory to the facts.”24

According to Tolziner’s survey, only six out of 34 architects and art historians in Moscow could remember this exhibition, although they could recall other 1930s exhibitions of Western art, as well as lectures given by German architects.25 The oblivion to which Meyer’s show has been consigned, he believed, occurred because it did not reflect the Bauhaus as it really was and as it was understood by its Soviet contemporaries, the former VKhUTEMAS students. Further hypotheses to explain this unpopularity could undoubtedly be added.

As soon as the assembly of the exhibition materials was completed in February 1931, the VOKS turned to Arkady Mordvinov, an active member of the VOPRA (the All-Union Society of Proletarian Architects),26 a militant group of “proletarian architects,” to write an introduction for the exhibition. At the time, this group of young actors playing at cultural revolution played a prominent role within Moscow’s various architectural debates, condemning Constructivism as a style of the Western bourgeoisie. Hannes Meyer and Béla Scheffler applied to join this association in December 193027 and were admitted in February. This step is not so astonishing if we take into consideration Meyer’s rejection of the modernist “style,” and his search in his theoretical work of 1929-1930 for an ecologically, psychologically and culturally conditioned style of architecture.28 Mordvinov was the right person to ask for an article on the “Red Bauhaus.” He was amply capable of providing the Dessau exhibition with a necessary ideological sharpness:

“(…) the material for the exhibition is ready but its opening is delayed until the publication of the catalogue, which we regard as a political issue because of the destruction of the Bauhaus.”29

Exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s Directorship, 1928–1930 at the Moscow State Museum of Modern Western Art (GMNZI), 1931, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne. 

It was not until June, however, that the catalogue was finally completed, with the result that the exhibition could not open until July. Such an organizational failure was not exceptional in the Soviet Union of the 1930s, but in this case the delay was a serious misfortune, for in the meantime the story had lost all its actuality, even for Meyer himself

“(The exhibition) is coming a little post festum now and I can barely get used to the stuff….”30

The same could be said for the viewing public. In April, Meyer gave another talk at the VASI, this time in the company of renowned Marxist art historian Ivan (János) Mácza: “Formalism, Constructivism, Functionalism at the Bauhaus (Dessau) and the meaning of Hannes Meyer’s school for us.”31 It was followed by a detailed report in the Brigade of Artists (Brigada Hudozhnikov) magazine, where once again was repeated the story of Meyer’s unfair dismissal, its consequences and “objective” reasons.32

This fatigue was best expressed in a critical review by the Bauhäuslerin Lou Scheper-Berkenkamp, who was in Moscow with her husband Hinnerk Scheper, professor of the mural workshop. Her essay appeared in a Moscow German-language newspaper where she worked for a time, the Moskauer Rundschau:

“This exhibition is too personal and lacks objectivity—and the ‘VOKS,’ which wants to explain the lack of art in this context through the Bauhaus house material of the struggle (not only for art!), but let’s say for the artist as a symptomatic phenomenon of this struggle, is guilty of this to a great extent. A struggle that ended with the relocation of the active communist groups at the Bauhaus to Moscow, which at that time was interesting and topical in its details, now, here, where the problems that beset the Bauhaus are not present at all (but only the necessity to take from the West its best), the exhibition has no meaning at all anymore and appears uninteresting. It is the work that is interesting.”33

Unknown photographer, Exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s Directorship, 1928–1930 at Moscow State Museum of Modern Western Art (GMNZI), 1931, Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin.

Scheper-Berkenkamp’s reference to the VOKS and how they treat art (artists) as a symptom of political or economic processes opens up another possible analytical angle for our understanding of the Bauhaus exhibition. Indeed, such “sociological” exhibitions were the latest thing in the Moscow art scene—as she admits in the very same review. Scheper-Berkenkamp also wrote positively of a recently opened permanent display she had seen at the Tretyakov Gallery, which must be the Experimental Comprehensive Marxist Display: the Art of the 18th and early 19th Century34—an exhibition that grouped masterpieces from the Tretyakov’s collection under categories such as “art of the conservative-feudal era” and “art of the large-scale serf-owners”—about which she wrote the following: “a new compilation of images and contemporaneous life props from many eras, set in the frame of a comfortably readable schema of the past.”35

This exhibition was a consequence of a Soviet museum reform initiated by several young Marxist art historians, whose aim was to reorganize museum collections “in such a way as to reveal the class nature of objects from different eras, as well as to move from a display of things to display of socio-economic processes.”36 This was supposed to turn museums into places for educating the masses rather than pilgrimage destinations for art-lovers. Today, this initiative is best known for its exhibitions of avant-garde art that had yet occurred, such as the “Experimental Comprehensive Exhibition of the Art of the Capitalist Era” (curator Alexandr Fëdorov-Davidov, 1931–1932). This display also had labels, schemas and commentaries—in this context, explaining the Russian/Soviet avant-garde as an example of bourgeois art. As recent scholarship has noted, this method of exhibition-making made extremely contemporary art look historical.37 The same distancing effect can be felt in another previous experimental display at the GMNZI, The style of the Industrial Bourgeoisie (curated by Nina Javorskaja in 1930). Here, recent artworks were shown together with pieces of interior design and, by way of example, a model of Le Corbusier’s Tsentrosoyuz building in Moscow. This exhibition was still on view at the GMNZI when Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s directorship… opened.

Opening of the exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s Directorship, 1928–1930 at the Moscow State Museum of Modern Western Art (GMNZI), 1931, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne. 

To some extent, the Hannes Meyer’s exhibition also historicized the Bauhaus. Although it did not include dramatic inscriptions or didactic statements within the display itself, explanatory texts could be found in the catalogue, which, as has been mentioned, was readily available. According to Meyer’s text, the Bauhaus history followed an “objective” socio-economic course, from individualist anarchy to bourgeois style to a failed attempt of socialism, and finally, “a fascist reaction.” He concluded:

“Our experience at the Bauhaus Dessau has shown that ‘the Red Bauhaus’ as a training center for socialist architecture is impossible under capitalist conditions.”38

The very idea of a negative retrospective is something different from either a promotional Wanderschau of the sort Meyer curated the previous year, or the exhibition Bauhaus 1919–1928, organized in 1938 by Bauhaus émigrés Herbert Bayer, Ise and Walter Gropius at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Unlike the latter, Mayer’s 1931 show did not promote the “spread of the Bauhaus idea”39 since, following his logic, it had been revealed as corrupt.

Most illustrative in this regard are the catalogue covers. The cover for the MOMA catalogue, designed by Herbert Bayer, is an exemplary Bauhaus design; the Moscow catalogue was probably produced by a VOKS designer, although curiously enough it stands out in comparison to the covers for other exhibitions organized by the VOKS and the GMNZI in the 1930–31 period— Bund der Deutschen Gebrauchsgraphiker (1930), The Artists of the John Reed Club (1931) or The Anti-Imperialist Exhibition (1931). Typical for the epoch, VOKS designers made an image or some other visual element an integral part of the cover design, while the Bauhaus exhibition catalogue used a black and white reproduction of another cover, designed by Bauhaus graduate Albert Mentzel for the magazine Die Kämpferin. Mentzel’s original cover had all the features of a 1920s propaganda poster—a strong red background, photomontage, the use of lettering of varying size. However, the exhibition catalogue has an extra title, “Bauhaus Dessau,” written above Mentzel’s graphic in large quasi-anti-Bauhaus serif typeface of the sort which became popular in Soviet typography later in the 1930s. This contrast, whether conscious or not, creates a visual distance between the Bauhaus—even in its “Red Bauhaus” version—and a Cyrillic layer, the present reality of the exhibition.

Opening of the exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s Directorship, 1928–1930 at the Moscow State Museum of Modern Western Art (GMNZI), 1931, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne. 

As a school, the Bauhaus was a closed chapter in history. Its achievements, as well as the achievements of all other epochs, could, however, be used for building socialism. On this point Lou Scheper’s critique appears to agree with that of Arkady Mordvinov, who in his introduction to the exhibition, published in a first issue of Sovetskaya Arkhitektura40 magazine, offers a selective reading of its legacy:

“What is valuable for us in the work of Hannes Meyer’s architectural school?

First: (its) scientific method of architectural design.... Second: rationalization in design and production. Everything is rationalized, even the blueprints are typified. And third: the system of architectural education. Bauhaus students of all years, together with a professor, are engaged in the designing and constructing of a building.”41

At the same time, Mordvinov’s article warns against what he considers a negative tendency in Meyer’s system: functionalism. He agrees with Meyer’s periodization of the “two Bauhauses” but finds both have their weak points: “… the school of Walter Gropius bears influences of cubo-Suprematism, formalism in art, but Hannes Meyer replaces art with science and technology.”42 The political leaflets were estimated as the only Bauhaus products exhibiting a truly proletarian nature.43 Their presence, however, was not enough to persuade the critics that Meyer’s Bauhaus was indeed revolutionary. The art critic David Arkin wrote a detailed account of the Bauhaus the following year with the telling title, “Esthetics of functionalism.” Quoting Meyer’s programmatic text “Bauhaus und gesellschaft,” which, of course, was not represented in the exhibition Arkin wrote:

“This poem about the Bauhaus proclaims the ‘integration into society’ of the Bauhaus work, the struggle against aesthetic formalism in the name of a 'harmonious work' and a purposeful determinacy of the formal world. While Meyer vigorously attacks the artistic templates and the banality of fashion and speaks out in favor of a transformation of the objects that determine the existence of society, he says nothing about the transformation of society itself. A functionalism immersed in the colors of the revolution proves to be at the service of a mere ‘harmonious development of our society.’”44

According to both authors, a positive outcome to the exhibition would only be possible if Meyer and the others were to overcome the Bauhaus, stop being functionalists and “remake themselves all (the way) through.”45

The exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s directorship, 1928-1930 was neither a promotion for Bauhaus ideas nor a conventional retrospective. The curators wanted to present a revised version of Meyer’s Bauhaus, the “Red Bauhaus,” and thus they removed the load-bearing pillars of this structure—its theoretical foundations, its structure, the preliminary course, the production of its workshops, etc. The attempt to replace them with the political activity of a group of students using a newly acquired Marxist vocabulary made the final result unstable. The exhibition could probably have worked as a political manifestation of the sort which initially had proved so successful at the first Moscow meetings. But its delayed opening rendered it outdated. In the end, it could be easily attacked by the arguments of both Bauhaus-lovers (Lou Scheper-Berkenkamp, Philipp Tolziner later) and Bauhaus-detractors armed with ideological arguments (Mordvinov, Arkin). Hannes Meyer had agreed with the latter, who were his comrades in those years. Unlike the 1938 MOMA exhibition that became a springboard for the personal careers of the Bauhaus emigrants to the United States, the Bauhaus show in Moscow remained an ill-fated episode.

Unknown photographer, Exhibition Bauhaus Dessau: Period of Hannes Meyer’s Directorship, 1928–1930 at Moscow State Museum of Modern Western Art (GMNZI), 1931, Bauhaus-Universität Weimar, Archiv der Moderne.

The German version of this text "Nach dem Ball: Hannes Meyer stellt das Bauhaus in Moskau vor" will be published in October 2018 in: Thomas Flierl & Philipp Oswalt (eds.): Hannes Meyer nach dem Bauhaus. Im Streit der Deutungen, Spector Books, Leipzig 2018.

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The history of the Stalinist critique of the Bauhaus and Hannes Meyer has two chapters. The first chapter spans the time from 1929 to the Architects’ Congress in the Soviet Union in 1937; the second consists in the condemnation of the Bauhaus in the GDR that took place on the trip by East German architects to Moscow in spring of 1950. This text tells the story of the first chapter. → more

Meyer’s Russia, or the Land that Never Was

It is quite hard to know where to start with Hannes Meyer in Moscow. It’s hard because, while there is plenty of documentation on him and his team in the Bauhaus Brigade—as well as other Western designers and architects (of these, Ernst May is at least as significant as Meyer, as is the Dutch designer Mart Stam, and each went on to produce more substantial work than Meyer after their respective Russian episodes)—the legacy of his work there presents certain difficulties in evaluating. → more

Moving Away to the Other End of the World — Reflections on the Letters Between Tibor Weiner and Hannes Meyer from the DAM Archive

This article examines the correspondence between a teacher (Hannes Meyer) and his former student (Tibor Weiner), who met at the Bauhaus in Dessau, going on to live for a period in the Soviet Union. Each migrated to Latin America shortly before the outbreak of World War Two, and returned to Europe in the late 1940s. The surviving letters between Meyer and Weiner, preserved in the DAM Archive in Frankfurt am Main, are not only a testimony of comradeship but also a window into some key moments in the first half of the twentieth century. → more

●Artists Work
Bauhaus in Russia — Haunted Houses

The following material was produced during the photographic workshop Bauhaus in Russia: Haunted houses, which took place in the framework of the exhibition bauhaus imaginista. Moving Away: The Internationalist Architect at the museum of contemporary art Garage in Moscow. Through an open-call we invited participants from several Russian cities to take part in the visual research on both the visible and invisible legacies of the “bauhauslers”. → more

●Artist Work
To Philipp Tolziner

For the exhibition bauhaus imaginista: Moving Away. The Internationalist Architect at Garage Contemporary Museum of Art, the contemporary artist Alice Creischer has been invited to respond to the personal archive of Bauhaus architect Philipp Tolziner. She produced reading of material relating to the architect’s socialist backgrounds and his work in the Soviet Union.  → more

●Artist Work
Sketch One: Lotte and Hermina — Script-Reading and Screening by Wendelien van Oldenborgh

The script that the artist Wendelin van Oldenborgh created for bauhaus imaginista: Moving Away. The Internationalist Architect as a public moment is an insight into the development of her larger film project which will premiere as a contribution to the bauhaus imaginista exhibition at Haus der Kulturen der Welt, March 2019. It features archive material around the personas Lotte Beese and Hannes Meyer, Hermine Huiswoud and Langston Hughes. → more

Hamhŭng’s Two Orphans (To Konrad Püschel) — East German Internationalism in North-Korea Emerging through a Chronopolitical Lens

Doreen Mende’s work Hamhung’s Two Orphans, which borrows its title from a chapter of the cine-essay Coréennes (1959) by Chris Marker, proposes to trace the transformation of the Bauhaus’s relevance from its prewar internationalist modernity into elements of the GDR’s socialist internationalism when architecture operated as a state-crafting instrument during the global Cold War. → more

“All artists interlock!” — How Bauhäuslers created the “New Germany” and promoted the national economy

The Third Reich was in ruins, the surrender not yet signed. An architect painstakingly working his way through the debris to the Schöneberg town hall found a sign on the door of the building authority with his name. Appointed to office by the German Communist Party (KPD), city counselor Hans Scharoun immediately looked around for his people: “I’ve looked everywhere for you, where are you? Here we go!” → more

The “School in the Woods” as a Socio-pedagogical Ideal — Functional Analyses and Photographs by Peterhans

The building theory classes at the Bauhaus focused on imparting a functional understanding of architecture. Building had become a science. As a result, the ADGB Trade Union School was designed logically from the inside out. Walter Peterhans’ photographs of the school images illustrate both the architect’s intentions for the building and the environmental studies conducted by Bauhaus students. → more

●Artist Work
Scenes from the Most Beautiful Campus in Africa — A Film about the Ife Campus

Zvi Efrat, 2019, film stills from the exhibition video projection, 25 min, color, sound, English.
Courtesy of the artist. → more

The Legacy of Arieh Sharon’s Postcolonial Modernist Architecture at the Obafemi Awolowo University Campus in Ile-Ife Nigeria

The significance of Arieh Sharon’s postcolonial modernist architecture at Obafemi Awolowo University Campus at Ile-Ife is multi-dimensional. Built between 1960 and 1978, at first glance the campus core consists of an ensemble of modernist buildings. In this article Bayo Amole examines some of the physical and conceptual characteristics of the campus master plan and core area design in order to illustrate their significance as examples of postcolonial modernist architecture—identifying the most important aspects of their legacy, which has continued to guide the design of the campus as it has developed over the course of more than a half century. → more

Bauhaus Modernism and the Nigerian Connection — The Socio-Political Context of Arieh Sharon and the University Of Ife Design

It should be considered “against the run of play” for a Bauhaus-trained Israeli architect such as Arieh Sharon to have been named designer of the post-independence University of Ife. This paper examines how developments in the socio-political context of Nigeria and international politics—including history and policies in the education sector—“constructed” Sharon’s involvement in the University of Ife design and the spread of Bauhaus modernism to tropical architecture. → more

Nigerian Campus Design — A Juxtaposition of Traditional and Contemporary Architecture

The early to mid-twentieth century saw the International Style and modernism rapidly influence major Nigerian cities and towns, first as a result of colonialism and then independence. Discussing the architecture of two first-generation Nigerian Universities, the University of Ibadan and Obafemi Awolowo University, this article builds upon the established discourse concerning how architects assimilated the International Style into the tropical climate and sociocultural context of Nigeria. → more

Colonial Architecture in Ile-Ife

The architectural heritage credited to the colonial intervention of the British in Nigeria is a blend of features imported by Europeans accustomed to a temperate climate, mixed with adaptations derived from the principles of modern architecture and concessions to the region’s tropical climate. As such, colonial buildings of this era can be regarded as a hybrid architectural style. → more

The New Culture School for Arts and Design — Launched in 1995

The New Culture School for Arts and Design in Ibadan, Nigeria has involved the development and construction of a space for creative people working in many different media in order to advance their professional proficiency in the fine arts, theater, music, film, photography, design, writing and more. → more

Nation Building through Campus Architecture — Israeli Architects Arieh Sharon and Eldar Sharon’s Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU) Campus in Ile-Ife, Nigeria, 1962–1976

The campus of Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU), Ile-Ife, Nigeria, the first phase of which was built between 1962 and 1972, is a fascinating example of modernist architecture in Africa. As a case study of Africa’s assimilation of the modern style, its design is intriguing also due to the fact that it was built by Israeli architect Arieh Sharon (1900–1984), aided by his son, Eldar Sharon (1933–1994). → more

Beyond Cement and Iron — Contextualizing Israeli Architecture in Africa

My focus on construction and planning is not incidental. These fields played a crucial role in space-shaping processes during the first decades of the Israeli state, as well as in the construction of the territorial identity of its new citizens. Simultaneously, during the 1960s, the modernist construction projects undertaken in African countries post-independence were also evidence of a desire amongst newly independent African nations for postcolonial national unity. → more

Tropical Architecture / Building Skin

Like the modernist architecture that preceded it, tropical architecture was co-defined with modern bodies and the bodies of the tropics: initially those of colonizers but soon colonized bodies as well. The technologies of tropical architecture, based on a modernist rationalism adapted to tropical climatic conditions, were, in turn, offered as a developmental asset to colonized subjects, especially young people. → more

A Hot Topic — Tropical Architecture and Its Aftermath

Both the tropical architecture discourse in general and British notions of modernism in particular were embedded in larger discussions on climatic and culturally sensitive approaches to building developed within the International Congresses of Modern Architecture (Congrès International d’Architecture Moderne—CIAM) from the 1950s onward—notions rooted in the hygienic and medical discourses of colonial occupation. → more

The Extension Buildings of the ADGB Trade Union School in Bernau — Documents of the Formalism Debate in the GDR

The former ADGB Trade Union School is regarded today as an icon of modern architecture. Designed at the Bauhaus under the direction of Hannes Meyer and Hans Wittwer together with the students of architecture, the building ensemble still stands as a paragon of collective work, reform pedagogical ideas and analytic architecture. Less attention has been paid to the extensions to the school, planned 1949–51 by Georg Waterstradt. These buildings stand as a valuable testimony to the vigor of GDR architecture. The “formalism debate” led to a rejection of Bauhaus architecture, and thus, the set of political-architectural principles exemplified by the Trade Union School. → more

Communistic Functionalist — The Anglophone Reception of Hannes Meyer

Philip Johnson described Hannes Meyer as a “communistic functionalist” whose most notable achievement was to have preceded Ludwig Mies van der Rohe as director of the Bauhaus. The position he assigned to Meyer was reinforced in the Bauhaus Exhibition of 1938 at MoMA. The particular view of the Bauhaus presented at MoMA in 1938 corresponds to the place of Meyer in the historiography of modern architecture in the 1930s, ‘40s, and ‘50s. The view that Meyer’s work allegedly lacked aesthetic interest, rendering it irrelevant to an Anglophone audience. → more

Selman Selmanagić at the Crossroads of Different Cultures — From Childhood Years in Bosnia to Bauhaus Education and Travels

Selman Selmanagić’s childhood years in Bosnia, on the eve of the First World War, as well as his education in Sarajevo, Ljubljana and at Bauhaus Dessau between the two world wars, together with his work in Palestine and Berlin, shaped his worldview and experience with different cultures and traditions. Throughout his career, he perpetually strove to find contemporary answers for the challenges of the time he was living in. → more

The “Hungarian Bauhaus” — Sándor Bortnyik’s Bauhaus-Inspired Budapest School Műhely 1928–1938

One of the many Hungarians associated with the Bauhaus, painter and graphic designer Sándor Bortnyik (1893-1976) opened his art and design school, Műhely, in Budapest in 1928 to bring the Bauhaus’s sprit and some of its teaching methods into Hungary. Even if Bortnyik’s school did not have the scope of the Bauhaus, it was an efficient experiment in an independent form of institutionalized education in the field of modern graphic design and typography. → more

Biology and Educational Models in the Pacific Southern Cone

The Chilean encounter with second-order cybernetics in the early 1970s was an essential part of the modernization project the state had been promoting since the 1920s, a project which also encompasses the 1945 reform of the architecture school. But if one reviews the history of this project with greater care, one can identify the reform of the new art school of 1928, which was the product of a social movement that began after the First World War, and that was able to implement in the main school of art of the country, a “first year of trial” similar to the methodology of the Bauhaus preliminary course, influenced by the trends of the “Active” or “New” school of the time. → more

For the Faculty of Architecture at METU — Bauhaus was a Promise

“ARCH 101 Basic Design” is the title of the introductory course offered to the first-year students in the METU Faculty of Architecture (Middle East Technical University, Ankara). Since the establishment of the school, this course has been conducted with a very strong Bauhaus impact. → more

From Social Democratic Experiment to Postwar Avant-Gardism — Asger Jorn and the International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus

The project bauhaus imaginista would be negligent if it did not address the artist group referenced by its title, the Mouvement Internationale pour un Bauhaus Imaginiste (International Movement for an Imaginist Bauhaus, or IMIB), founded in 1953 by Danish artist Asger Jorn together with a handful of French and Italian colleagues. Many of the theoretical and artistic positions advocated by the IMIB were developed dialectically in response both to the historical Bauhaus and the reconstitution of a Bauhaus-inspired pedagogical program at the Hochschule für Gestaltung (HfG) in Ulm. → more

Letter from Asger Jorn to Max Bill — February 12, 1954

Asger Jorn read of Max Bill’s plans for the new Hochschule für Gestaltung in Ulm (HfG), a school modeled after the Bauhaus, in the British Architects’ Yearbook 1953, where Bill had placed a promotional article to attract prospective students and teachers. Excited by the possibility of participating in a new democratic pedagogical experiment and in pursuing his interest in fusing art and architecture, he wrote to Bill, inquiring about the role of art at Ulm and expressing his desire to secure a teaching position.

This is a translation of one of the letters Jorn send to Bill. → more

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